Peer-Reviewed Literature

Studies Using Medi/Nuclear® Radioaerosol Lung Imaging Systems:

Changlai, Sheng-Ping, Kao, Chia-Hung, Wang, Shyn-Jen, Lin, Wan-Yu, and Lan, Joang-Liang.  “The Change in the Distribution of Tc-99m Human Serum Albumin Radioaerosols in Asthma After a 1-Week Course of Corticosteroid Inhalation Treatment”.  Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1995.  20(7): 626-629.


Francken, G. A., Waxman, A. D., Potter, R., and King, R.  "The Effect of Interial Changes on Particle Size Distribution in Nebulizer Systems: The Impact on Clinical Studies".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1998, 39: 118.


Hyun, M., Waxman, A., Potter, R., and King, R.  "Improvement in Aerosol Delivery from a Standard Nebulizer System: The Use of a Holding Compartment".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1998, 39: 117.


Hyun, M., Waxman, A., D' Agnolo, A., Potter, R., King, R., and Cohen, I.  "The Impact of a Holding Compartment on Aerosol Delivery from Nebulizer Systems".  Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1999, 24(4): 298.


Hyun, M. C., Waxman, A. D., D' Agnolo, A., and Potter, R.  "Comparison of Xenon and a Modified Nebulizer for Aerosol Ventilation in the Diagnosis of Pulmonary Embolus: Impact on the Intermediate PIOPED Category".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1999, 40.


Hyun, M., Corbilla, R., D' Agnolo, A., and Waxman, A.  "Co-Registration of Ventilation and Perfusion SPECT Imaging: Comparison with Planar".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2002, 43.


Kao, Hung-Chia, Lin, Hui-Tzu, Yu, Shu-Ling, Wang, Shyh-Jen, and Yeh, Shin-Hwa.  “Supine Lung Clearance of Tc-99m DTPA and HMPAO Aerosols”.  Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1995.  20(7): 633-635.


Kuni, C. C., Ducret, R. P., Nakhleh, R. E., and Boudreau, R. J.  “Reverse Mismatch Between Perfusion and Aerosol Ventilation in Transplanted Lungs”.  Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1993.  18(4): 313-317.


Ponto, James A., Graham, Michael M., and Bricker, John A.  "Alternatives to Technetium 99m Pentetate for Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Imaging".  Journal of the American Pharmaceutical Association 2002.  42.1: 112-113.


Potter, Ross.  Rev. of “Technetium-99m DTPA Aerosol Contamination in Lung Ventilation Studies”, by Williams, Daniel A.  Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology March 1998. 26(1). 


Potter, R., Swanson, L. A., Brotherton, J., and Suyenaga, K.  "Radioaerosol Inhalation Lung Scanning".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1972, 13: 874.


Wang-Shyh-Jen, Kao, Chia-Hung, Lin, Wan-Yu, Hsu, Chung-Yuan, Chang, Cheng-Pei, and Lan, Joang-Liang.  “Effects of Inhalation of Steroids on Lung Permeability in Patients with Asthma”.  Clinical Nuclear Medicine 1995.  20(6): 494-496. 


Washington, M .J., Whiteley, M. E., Mishkin, F. S., Potter, R. E., and King, R. W.  "Factors Influencing Aerosol Ventilation Imaging".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1997, 38(5): 133.  


Studies Using the Medi/Nuclear® Xenon/Master®:

Bergin, Colleen J., Hauschildt, John, Rios, Guillermo, Belezzouli, Ernest V., Huynh, Tung, and Channick, Richard N.  "Accuracy of MR Angiography Compared to Radionuclide Scanning in Identifying the Cause of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension".  American Journal of Roentgenology 1997; 168: 1549-1555.


Studies Using the Healthline® Medical Medicator®:

Chatburn, Robert. L. and McPeck, Michael.  “A New System for Understanding Nebulizer Performance.”  Respiratory Care 2007.  52(8): 1037-1050.


Corcoran TE, Shortall BP, Kim IK, Meza MP and Chigier N.  “Aerosol Drug Delivery Using Heliox and Nebulizer Reservoirs: Results from an MRI-Based Pediatric Model”.  Journal of Aerosol Medicine 2003. 16: 263-271.


Corcoran, T. E., Venkataramanan, R., Mihelc, K. M., Marcinkowski, A. L., Ou, J., McCook, B. M., Weber, L., Paterson, D. L., Pilewski, J. M., McCurry, K. R., and Husain, S.  “Aerosol Deposition of Lipid Complex Amphotericin-B (Abelcet) in Lung Transplant Recipients”.  American Journal of Transplantation 2006.  6: 2765-2773.


Laube BL, Benedict GW and Dobs AS.  “Time to Peak Insulin Level, Relative Bioavailability, and Effect of Site of Deposition of Nebulized Insulin in Patients with Noninsulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus”. Journal of Aerosol Medicine 1998.  11: 153-173.


Laube BL, Jashnani R, Dalby RN and Zeitlin PL.  “Targeting Aerosol Deposition in Patients with Cystic Fibrosis: Effects of Alterations in Particle Size and Inspiratory Flow Rate”.  Chest 2000. 118: 1069-1076. 


Rau, Joseph L.  “The Inhalation of Drugs: Advantages and Problems”.  Respiratory Care 2005.  50(3):367-382.


Alternatives to DTPA:

Isitman, Ali T., Collier, David, Palmer, David W., Trembath, LisaAnn, Krasnow, Arthur Z., Rao, Shyam A., Hellman, Robert S., Hoffman, Raymond G., Peck, David C., and Dellis, Charles J.  "Comparison of Technetium-99m Pyrophosphate and Technetium-99m DTPA Aerosols for SPECT Ventilation Lung Imaging".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 1988.  29.11: 1761-1767.


Safety of V/Q Versus CT:

Ahmad, Nawaid, Srinivasan, Koottalai, and Moudgil, Harmesh.  "V/Q Scanning: A Useful Alternative to Pulmonary CT Angiography--Let's Not Forget It", Letters.  American Journal of Roentgenology 2011. 196.


Barr, Helen J., Ohlhaber, Thomas, and Finder, Charles.  "Focusing in on Dose Reduction: The FDA Perspective".  American Journal of Roentgenology 2006.  186: 1716-1717.


Bhargavan, Mythreyi, Sunshine, Jonathan H., Hervey, Sheleika L., Jha, Saurabh, Vializ, Joyce, and Owen, Jean B.  "The Actual Role of CT and Ventilation-Perfusion Scanning in Workup for Suspected Pulmonary Embolism: Evidence from Hospitals".  American Journal of Roentgenology 2009.  193: 1324-1332.


Einstein, Andrew J., Henzlova, Milena J., and Rajagopalan, Sanjay.  "Estimating Risk of Cancer Associated with Radiation Exposure from 64-Slice Computed Tomography Coronary Angiography".  Journal of the American Medical Association 2007, 298(3): 317-323.


Freeman, Leonard M.  "Don't Bury the V/Q Scan: It's as Good as Multidetector CT Angiograms with a Lot Less Radiation Exposure".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2008, 49(1): 5-8.  


Griffey, Richard T. and Sodickson, Aaron.  "Cumulative Radiation Exposure and Cancer Risk Estimates in Emergency Department Patients Undergoing Repeat or Multiple CT".  American Journal of Roentgenology 2009, 192: 887-892.


Milne, Eric N. C.  "Female Breast Radiation Exposure", Letters.  American Journal of Roentgenology 2006, 186.


Parker, Mark S., Hui, Ferdinand K., Camacho, Marc A., Chung, Jiyearn K., Broga, Dean W., Sethi, and Narinder N.  "Female Breast Radiation Exposure During CT Angiography".  American Journal of Roentgenology 2005, 185: 1228-1233.


Ridge, Carole A., McDermott, Shaunagh, Freyne, Bridget J., Brennan, Donal J., Collins, Conor D., and Skehan, Stephen J.  "Pulmonary Embolism in Pregnancy: Comparison of Pulmonary CT Angiography and Lung Scintigraphy".  American Journal of Roentgenology 2009, 193: 1223-1332.


Sheh, Steven H., Bellin, Eran, Freeman, Katherine D., and Haramati, Linda B.  "Pulmonary Embolism Diagnosis and Mortality with Pulmonary CT Versus Ventilation-Perfusion Scintigraphy: Evidence of Overdiagnosis with CT?"  American Journal of Roentgenology 2012, 198: 1340-1345.


Stein, Evan G., Haramati, Linda B., Chamarthy, Murthy, Sprayregen, Seymour, Davitt, Michelle M., and Freeman, Leonard M. "Success of a Safe and Simple Algorithm to Reduce Use of CT Pulmonary Angiography in Emergency Department".  American Journal of Roentgenology 2010, 194(3): 392-397.


V/Q Interpretation:

Glaser, Joseph E., Chamarthy, Murthy, Haramati, Linda B., Esses, David, and Freeman, Leonard M.  "Successful and Safe Implementation of a Trinary Interpretation and Reporting Strategy for V/Q Lung Scintigraphy".  Journal of Nuclear Medicine 2011, 52(10): 1-5.  


V/Q Diagnostic Benefits:
Parameswaran, Krishnan, Knight, Andrew C., Keaney, Niall P., Williams, E. David, and Taylor, Ian K. "Ventilation and Perfusion Lung Scintigraphy of Allergen-Induced Airway Responses in Atopic Asthmatic Subjects".  Canadian Respiratory Journal 2007, 14(5): 285-291.


Particle Size Measurement:

Kelly, Richard N. and Etzler, Frank M.  "What is Wrong with Laser Diffraction?"